Hangwa is a general term for Korean traditional confectionery. Common ingredients in hangwa are grain flour, honey, yeot, sugar, fruit or edible root.

Types of hangwa

  • Yumilgwa(유과): made by frying and kneading.
  • Yakgwa, literally “medicinal confectionery” is a flower shape biscuit made of honey, sesame oil and wheat flour.
  • Suksilgwa (숙실과), made by boiling fruits, ginger, or nuts in water and then reformed into the original fruit’s shape, or other shapes.
  • Gwapyeon (과편), jelly-like confection made by boiling sour fruits, starch, and sugar.
  • Dasik (다식), literally “tea snack.” It is made by kneading rice flour, honey, and various types of flour from nuts, herbs, sesame, or jujube.
  • Yeot (엿): a Korean traditional candy in liquid or solid form made from steamed normal rice, glutinous rice, glutinous kaoliang, corn, sweet potatoes or mixed grains. The steamed ingredients are lightly fermented and boiled in a large pot called sot (솥) for a long time.
  • Yeot gangjeong (엿강정) : Pine nuts, peanuts, popped rice, walnuts, roasted beans or sesame seeds rolled in yeot mixture
  • Jeonggwa (정과) : Sugarized fruit, ginger, lotus root, carrot or ginseng
  • Mandugwa (만두과) : stuffed with a sweetened filling and coated with jocheong, or liquid candy.


The word has two components: han and gwa. Gwa means “confectionery”. Sources disagree in their interpretation of han in this word, that is, whether it means “Korean” and whose hanja is or the one that means “Chinese” and whose hanja is . Most sources, such as several major commercial online dictionaries and encyclopedias, interpret hangwa as “韓菓” (“Korean confectionery”), counterpart of yanggwa (洋果), Western confectionery.[1][2] Contrariwise, the internet edition of a standard dictionary by the National Institute of the Korean Language, South Korea‘s official language regulating body, has “漢菓”[3] (literally “Chinese confectionery”) with a definition that differs from the one given in other sources and this article, calling it a kind of yumilgwa, which is also variety of Korean confectionery, instead of the other way around. This dictionary makes no mention of “韓菓”, whether as an alternative hanja spelling or in a separate entry.[4]

Gangnam style is probably become too mainstream this time worldwide! Katy Pery, Josh Groban, Justin Bieber, Ellen DeGenners, Britney Spears and Nelly Furtado are among of the trend. Every TV channel here, in Indonesia become too often airing about Gangnam style song which popularized by PSY, an oldschool korean rapper who committed to being funny but not look silly. Yea, most of Korean Humor almost similar with Indonesia sometimes a little bit cheesy with pretty boys appearing and the rest performers do lots of silly action (such as: opera van java).

back to business, gangnam style song is launch in summer. As a summer song, it is a perfect choice to be listened in super hot and humid day in Korea. upbeats, pool scene and watery background (include the tolitets), dancey, night light, and any colorful thingy they used. It is definitely a summer song.

So, the Highlight of this video is …..the high-energy DANCE. the horse riding-like dance did in horse stable, the elevator dance (I assume it as a ridiculous and a bit…..nasty?) and my favorite is the appearing of HYUNA , hell yeah she’s  my favorite sexy female singer. Anyway, in my honest opinion, PSY usuallly pull off a sexy yet sex appealing MV concept and colorful color choose (or bling-bling).

This Gangnam-style dance syndrome is about the next shuffle dance (LMFAO) but for the gags. Who don’t want to dance when this music is in the air? its unique dance style yet funny and extremely easy to be followed is the plus point. Based on my research on my thesis about K-Pop, a dance which is unique yet easy to be followed is easy to remember and become popular.

So what is exactly a gangnam style means? Most peoples I know assume it is kinda dance style. Not wrong though, but deeply dig to the meaning it is not just a dance. It is more about style, lifestyle or way of think. Something like that. I conclude it from what the lyric said and about gangnam condition itself.

Gangnam which is literally means South of the River (Gang-River and Nam-South) is an area which located in Seoul near Han-Gang (river). The Han River is a major river in South Korea and the fourth longest river on the Korean peninsula after the Amnok, Duman and Nakdong rivers. Along the banks of the river, especially in Seoul, pedestrian walkways and bicycle paths are available on both sides of the river. Various restaurants and cafes are located on these paths. While most bridges crossing the Han are for motor vehicles or subways only, citizens may cross select bridges on foot or by bicycle.

Gangnam-gu (gangnam-district) is one of the 25 gu (local government districts) which make up the city of Seoul. It is one of the most affluent areas of Seoul and is located in the southeast of the city. The district composed of 22 dong (neighbourhood), and one amongst them is the APGUJEONG which famous with its rodeo street lined up with famous designer-brand store. Several popular shopping, important business district and entertainment areas are located in Gangnam-gu, beside Apgujong, the COEX Mall and the area around Gangnam Station.

While South is newer and more modern, the north (Gangbuk) has more tourist sites and it’s cheaper. The south’s per capita income is double that of the north’s. But there is not much for tourists to see in Gangnam. It’s more for modern tourism like going to trendy cafes in Cheongdamdong or clubbing at luxury hotels in the Gangnam area. Gangnam is definitely a place where you can find a glassy building, megalomaniac tower, also trendy and fast forwarding lifestyle.

Most celebrities live in Gangnam area, and the business is growing bigger there in Gangnam. It is truly a symbol of upper-class lifestyle in high level way of life.From the description and the we look back to PSY’s song, here is my conclusion:

fisrt, see the translation of the song :

A girl who is warm and humanle during the day
A classy girl who know how to enjoy the freedom of a cup of coffee
A girl whose heart gets hotter when night comes
A girl with that kind of twist

I’m a guy
A guy who is as warm as you during the day
A guy who one-shots his coffee before it even cools down
A guy whose heart bursts when night comes
That kind of guy

Beautiful, loveable
Yes you, hey, yes you, hey
Beautiful, loveable
Yes you, hey, yes you, hey
Now let’s go until the end

Oppa is Gangnam style, Gangnam style
Oppa is Gangnam style, Gangnam style
Oppa is Gangnam style

Eh- Sexy Lady, Oppa is Gangnam style
Eh- Sexy Lady oh oh oh oh

A girl who looks quiet but plays when she plays
A girl who puts her hair down when the right time comes
A girl who covers herself but is more sexy than a girl who bares it all
A sensable girl like that

I’m a guy
A guy who seems calm but plays when he plays
A guy who goes completely crazy when the right time comes
A guy who has bulging ideas rather than muscles
That kind of guy

Beautiful, loveable
Yes you, hey, yes you, hey
Beautiful, loveable
Yes you, hey, yes you, hey
Now let’s go until the end

Oppa is Gangnam style, Gangnam style
Oppa is Gangnam style, Gangnam style
Oppa is Gangnam style

Eh- Sexy Lady, Oppa is Gangnam style
Eh- Sexy Lady oh oh oh oh

On top of the running man is the flying man, baby baby
I’m a man who knows a thing or two
On top of the running man is the flying man, baby baby
I’m a man who knows a thing or two

You know what I’m saying
Oppa is Gangnam style

Eh- Sexy Lady, Oppa is Gangnam style
Eh- Sexy Lady oh oh oh oh

It is a flirting song, about PSY boasting himself as a gangnam style guy and he wants a girl in the same level with him As Gangnam also a symbol of wealthy people.

This skewering of the Gangnam life can be easy to miss for non-Korean. Psy boasts that he’s a real man who drinks a whole cup of coffee in one gulp, for example, insisting he wants a women who drinks coffee. Maybe you thing what’s a big deal with coffee but indeed it is not an ordinary coffee. It is Starbucks which is 4 dollar coffee for a single cup.


based on Jea Kim – an American blogger in Korea: “In Korea, there’s a joke poking fun at women who eat 2,000-won (about $2) ramyun (instant noodles) for lunch and then spend 6,000 won on Starbucks coffee.” They’re called Doenjangnyeo (된장녀), or “soybean paste (miso)  women” for their propensity to crimp on essentials so they can over-spend on conspicuous luxuries, of which coffee is, believe it or not, one of the most common. “The number of coffee shops has gone up tremendously, particularly in Gangnam,” Hong said. “Coffee shops have become the place where people go to be seen and spend ridiculous amounts of money.”

Yes, I agree with her. Coffee now become a lifestyle, hanging out in coffee shops is reflecting something westernish. It also happens in Indonesia, but the difference is Indonesian peoples already enjoys black coffee in past time while Korea starts recently. Koreans was having a cup of coffee after eating for replacing dessert, they don’t drink it as morning coffee or afternoon snack while hanging-out with friends (read my post about coffee and Korean)

In fact, as what usually happens in other side of the world, peoples want to become a pasrt of more modern society and live in higher level of lifestyle.Social life today is more about “you are what (where) you eat and what you wear (branded items like bags or cloth)”.

I think it is more about a satire song, indeed. I prefer the “oppa Just my style” version,actually


  1. One thing that surprised me was that, Korean people don’t drink coffee in the morning, coffee shops are quite empty until 3pm and gets mega busy from 4pm…………In Seoul, coffee is something you drink when you meet people or after a meal –
  2. Although coffee wasn’t introduced to Korea until the late 19th century, it has become of the peninsula’s most popular drinks
  3. Fashionable coffee shops grow rapidly in Korea. Fascinating decor, eyes popping style, but not all of the baristas have a coffe maker background
  4. How coffee invades Korea : Only premix coffee available –> vending machine made coffee –> fascinating caoffee shops (domestic/international chains)
  5. Most cafes will  let you relax and drink the coffee there, or provide a paper cup for take out.  Many places will also give a discount for takeaway coffee, so be sure to check.
  6. Coffee shop is a place to hangout with friends.. Hang out in a famous coffee chains reflect a modern minded people (such as : starbucks). So it doesn;t surprising when you grab your coffee and need a quite relaxation in the afternoon, but all what you’ve got is a crowded coffee shop.
  7. FOR SNACKING, most coffee shops (even starbucks) provides TOMATOES in their displaying racks
  8. Most favorite coffee choice : Americano. Either hot  or iced, they prefer a lighter version  than espresso.
  9. Koreans prefer a soft taste of coffees.
  10. Coffee price more expensive than the price of major meals


Konglish sebenarnya bisa dikatakan sebagai Korean (language) style English. Jaid bisa dibilang sebagai bahasa Inggris dengan gaya Korea. Konglish terbentuk dalam dua kategori, yang pertama merupakan serapan langsung dalam bahasa Inggris yang diadaptasi dengan huruf Korea (hangeul) dan yang kedua adalah bahasa Inggris singkatan yang sebenarnya tidak digunakan di negara nativ bahasa Inggris.

Untuk Konglish yang merupakan serapan langsung bahasa Korea, contohnya seperti motorcycle yang menjadi “mo-to-sai-kheul”. Konglish yang merupakan serapan ini tercipta karena bahasa Inggris diadaptasi dengan cara baca dan tulis bahasa korea.

Pada dasarnya, orang Korea masih banyak yang kesulitan mebaca alfabet. Bagi mereka, membaca hangeul jauh lebih mudah. Nah, di zaman modern seperti ini, dengan penggunaan bahasa Inggris untuk alasan modernitas, bahasa Inggris diadaptasi dengan cara orang korea biasa membaca dan menulis.


  1. Canada = dalam bahasa Inggris dibaca “Kha-na-da”. Tapi Orang Korea mendengarnya dengan “Khe-na-da” yang akhirnya menuliskannya pun dengan 캐나다 “khe-na-da”
  2. Boiler , waiter = dalam bahasa Inggris seharusnya dibaca “boi-leu” dan “wey-teu” tapi di korea menjadi “Bo-i-leo” (보일러)  dan “we-i-theo”  (웨이터). Di Korea, semua kata Inggris berakhiran “er” selalu menjadi “eo” atau seperti cara baca huruf ” O ” dalam kata -sombong-
  3. Christmas =dalam bahasa Inggris sebenarnya dibaca “khris-meus”, tapi di Korea menjadi “kheu-ri-se-ma-seu (크리스마스)”. Hal ini dikarenakan dalam caara baca Korea, tidak ada huruf mati di belakang. Jika ada huruf mati selalu di tambah dengan huruf “eu” atau ” ㅡ “. semacam penggunaan huruf “U” di Jepang.

Jenis Konglish yang kedua adalah bahasa Inggris singkatan yang sebenarnya tidak digunakan di negara nativ bahasa Inggris. Gabungan kata ini bisa berasal dari bahasa Inggris + Bahasa Inggris, ataupun bahasa Inggris + bahasa Korea / bisa juga korean slang


  1. Officetel : “eo-phi-seu-tael” (어피스텔). Merupakan gabungan dari kata Office + Hotel. Di negara non-Korea, tak ada kosa kata Officetel. Officetel sendiri bisa diartikan sebagai semacam ruko (rumah toko). Jadi merupakan bangunan yang memiliki ruang untuk kantor dan juga tempat tinggal. Penggunanya biasanya adalah pemilik studio foto, pengacara, dll.
  2. Minihompi :”Mi-ni-hom–phi”  (미니홈피). Mungkin awal katanya sebenarnya adalah “mini Homepage” Semacam social network atau blog semacam facebook. Di Korea, ada situs bernama cyworld yg lebih mirip seperti friendster yg dulu sempat booming di Indonesia.

Konglish sendiri bukan hal yang bagus. Karena jika dipraktekan kepada orang non-Korea, orang yang diajak berbicara otomatis tidak akan mengerti karena cara pengucapan yang tidak baku.

saya sendiri pernah menemukan tulisan di Dokumen yang syaa terjemahkan di kantor seperti di bawah ini

  1. 커플링 = Kheo-pel-ling. Memiliki dua arti yaitu “couple ring” dan “coupling (untuk mesin)”
  2. 브로츠/브로스 = be-ro-cheu / beu-ro-seu yang sebenarnya adalah “broth” alias kaldu
  3. 이미지 = i-mi-ji adalah image (pembawaan seseorang atau gambar)

dan secara jujur saya katakan, bahasa Inggris orang Korea masih sangat buruk. Banhkan dalam urusan grammar, mereka masih terbawa dengan grammar ala Korea.

Sebenarnya banyak ucapan selamat dalam bahasa Korea, ucapan itu semua menggunakan kata …..축하 드립니다( chukha deurimnida ) atau 축하 합니다 ( chukha hamnida ) ” Selamat….. ”

misalnya “ 생일 축하 합니다 ( saengil chukha hamnida ) selamat ulang tahun . Sedangkan saat akan mengucapkan selamat ulang tahun untuk orang yang lebih tua, tidak menggunakan 생일 (Saeng-il), melainkan 생신 (Saeng-Shin)
Sekarang malah ada yang bahasa gaul, jadinya 해피 생신 (Happy Sae-sin), merupakan mix dari bahasa Inggris dengan Korea.

결혼 축하드려요 ( gyeolhon chukha deuriyeoyo ) berarti ” selamat menikah ”

Untuk yang mau lebaran, bisa juga diucapkan ” 단식 축제 일 축하 합니다 ( dansik chukje il chukha hamnida ) ” selamat hari lebaran “.

Kalau ingin memberi selamat untuk yang baru lulus, menggunakan 졸업 축하합니다 (jor-eob chukhahamnida) atau happy graduation

sedangkan untuk yang baru masuk sekolah atau kuliah, katakan padanya 입학 축하해요 (ibhak chukhaheyo) yg artinya selamat masuk sekolah. dan berarti dia adalah murid baru (신입생/ sin ib saeng)

Punya teman yang baru masuk kerja di perusahaan dan menjadi karyawan baru? katakan padanya입사 축하해요 (ib-sa chukhaheyo) yang artinya selamat masuk kantor. karyawan baru bahasa koreanya adalah 신입사원 (sin ib sa weon)
contoh lainnya masih banyak lagi, tergantung situasinya.

bagimana dengan selamat weekend?
pakainya bukan …..축하하다.
melainkan 주말 잘 보내세요 (jumal jal boneseyo/selamat weekend)

Ucapan waktu makan ( 식사할 때 )
Saat kita makan di warung Korea atau di kantin( 식당/ sikdang ) biasanya

ada ucapan-ucapan seperti ini :
-맛있게 드세요 ( masitge deuseyo ) ” selamat menikmati ” .
*konteks pemakaian kalimat ini saat kita berbicara kepada orang yang lebih kita hormati atau baru dikenal. Sense-nya lebih sopan dan formal.

– 잘 먹겠습니다 ( jal meokgessseumnida ) ” terima kasih “. diucapkan untuk menyampaikan terima kasih sebelum makan, yang arti sebenarnya ” saya akan makan dengan lahap “. namun bila ucapannya setelah makan, maka menggunakan istilah : 잘먹었습니다 ( jalmeogeossseumnida ) arti harfiahnya “saya telah makan dengan lahap”. Namun makna yang terkandung sama, yaitu ” terima kasih ”
-Ketika kita makan, lalu ada orang lain datang, ucapannya adalah ” 식사 하세요 ” ( siksa haseyo ) artinya silahkan makan,seprti biasanya orang Indonesia, yg pada saat makan dan ada orang yang dikenal tiba-tiba datang dan biasa mengatakan “ayo makan/ makan dulu yaa”
dan biasanya jawaban dari orang yang diajak berbicara adalah : 많이 드세요( manhi deuseyo ) ” makanlah dengan banyak

Not so long ago, my hubae (junior) who have a short course of Korean language in Korea, post a video in facebook group. Group for the korean studies students in Gadjah mada university.

this video shows 2 foreigners who asking way to COEX mall. The first one is a white skinned foreigner or the western people. and the other one is a yellow skinned South East Asia people,to be exact he is from Indonesia, the same nationality as me.

Many Indonesian people work as labor in most Korean factory. Yes, Korea imported human resources for labor ship from Indonesia. But, Many of Indonesian people also STUDY in Korea,learn and study diligently in Korea. They pay their study either with their own money or scholarships.

You guys please check the video and give your comment in comment section below. How the two peoples get TOTALLY different reactions from korean people. Love,honor and respect for the white skinned people and IGNORING the ASIAN persons.

from what I’ve ever know, most of Korean people admire the western people. They really proud if any western people can speak Korean, even just for saying Kamshamnida. The Koreans always look the western people one with “OH~WOW” looking and attitude.